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Imari Vase Meiji period.

SKU: Imari Vase, Meiji period $349.00
Imari porcelain is the name for Japanese porcelain wares made in the town of Arita, in the former Hizen Province, northwestern Kysh. They were exported to Europe extensively from the port of Imari, Saga between latter half of 17th century and former half of 18 th century, Japanese as well as the Europeans called them Imari. In Japanese, these porcelains are also known as Arita-yaki ('' 1/4 ). Imari or Arita porcelain has been produced continuously until present date. Characteristics Though there are many types of Imaris, Westerners conception of Imari in popular sense has association with only a type of Imari prodeced and exported in large quantity in mid-17th century. The type is called Kinrande. Kinrande Imari is colored porcelain with underglaze cobalt blue and overglaze red and gold. The color combination was not seen in China at that time. Traditional Ming dynasty color porcelain used dominantly red and green, probably due to scarcity of gold in China, whereas gold was abundant in Japan those days. The subject matter of Imari is diverse ranging from of foliage and flowers, people scenery and abstraction. Some Imari design structures such as kraakstyle were adopted from China, but most designs were uniquely Japanese owing to the rich Japanese tradition of paintings and costume design. The porcelain has a gritty texture on the bases, where it is not covered by glaze. There is also blue and white Imari. Kakiemon style Imari is another type of Imari, but it tends to be categorized separately in Europe. History Imari was simply the trans-shipment port for Arita wares. The kilns at Arita formed the heart of the Japanese porcelain industry, which developed in the 17th century, after kaolin was discovered in 1616 by an immigrant Korean potter, Yi Sam-pyeong or Kanage Sambei (1579a''1655). Kanage Sambei is the name he adopted after he naturalized to Japan. Yi Sam-pyeong voluntarily emigrated to Japan leading his extended family (180 persons) responding to the offer of privilegedAposition in Japan, after the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592a''1598). After the discovery, Arita kilns began to produce revised Korean style blue and white porcelains known as Shoki-Imari. There are many other Korean descendant potters other than Kanagae family, and they produced Shoki-Imari. Shoki-Imari is limited to blue and white. In mid-17th century there are also a lot of Chinese refugees in Northern Kyushu due to the turmoil on Chinese continent, and it is said one of them brought coloring technique to Arita. Thus Shoki-Imari developed into Ko-KutaniImari. Ko-Kutani is produced around 1650 for both export and domestic market. Blue and white porcelain were continued to be produced and they are called Ai-Kutani. Ko-Kutani Imari for export market usually adopted Chinese design structure such as kraak style, whereas Ai-Kutani for the domestic market are highly unique in design, are valued very much among collectors. Ko-Kutani style evolved into Kakiemon style Imari, which was produced for about 50years around 1700. Imari achieved its technical and aesthetic peak in Kakiemon style, and they dominated European market. Blue and white Kakiemon is called Ai-Kakiemon. Kakiemon style transformed itself to Kinrande in 18th century. Kinrande use underglaze blue and overglaze red and gold, and later some other colors. Imari bigan to be exported to Europe, because the Chinese kilns at Ching-te-Chen were damaged in the political chaos and the new Qing dynasty government stopped trade in 1656a''1684. Exported to Europe was made through the Dutch East India Company, but the designation "Imari porcelain" in Europe connotes Arita wares mostly Kinrande Imari. Export of Imari to Europe stopped in mid-18th century when China began export to Europe again, since Imari was not able to compete against China due to high labor cost. By that time, however, both Imari and Kakiemon style were already so popular among Europeans, Chinese export porcelain copied both Imari and Kakiemon style, which is called Chinese Imari. At the same time, European kilns, such as Meisen also tried to copy Imari and Kakiemon. Export of Imari surged again in late 19th century (Meiji era) when Japonism flourished in Europe. Thus in western world today, you can find two kind of Imari, one is those exported in mid Edo period and those exported in Meiji. But those two types are completely different from the viewpoint of collectors, though Kinrande appearances are similar. Nabeshima is the other category of Imari. Nabeshima is a kind of Imari produced in Lord Nabeshima's official kiln only for the official use of Lord Nabeshima throughout Edo period. As such, Nabeshima is characterized by its distinctively noble design. Imari style Though sophisticated wares in authentic Japanese styles were being made at Arita for the fastidious home market, Europeans Style designations of Arita porcelain is formed after blue and white kraak porcelains imitating Chinese underglaze "blue-and-white" wares or made use of enamel colors over underglazes of cobalt blue and iron red. The ware often used copious gilding, sometimes with spare isolated sprigged vignettes, but often densely patterned in compartments. There were two quite different styles in these wares. "On the one hand a gaudy, brash brightly coloured and highly decorated style, the Imari style". Globular Imari teapots with swan-necked spouts helped establish the classic European form for these new necessities of life. Kakiemon style Early experiments with overglaze colored enamels at Arita are associated with the famous Sakaida Kakiemon (1596a''1666), whose name is memorialized in "Kakiemon" ware, the other main tradition in lightly fired overglaze enamel decors. Dutch traders had a monopoly on the insatiable export trade, the first large order being placed at Arita by the Dutch East India Company in 1656. The trade peaked in the late 17th century and was slowly replaced by Chinese kilns in the early 18th century; it ended in 1756, as social conditions in China settled with the full establishment of the Qing Dynasty. Imitating Arita designs, fine "Chinese Imari" export wares were produced in the 18th century, eclipsing the original Japanese exports. Imari patterns, as well as "Kakiemon" designs and palette of colors, influenced some early Orientalizing wares produced by the porcelain manufactories at Meissen, Chantilly, or later at Vincennes. European centers imitated the style of "Imari" wares, initially in faience at Delft in the Netherlands, and in the early 19th century at Robert Chamberlain's factory at Worcester.