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Bury Lady Charlotte; Diary Illustrative of the Times of George The Fourth Comprising the Secret History of the Court During the Reigns of George III and George IV.

SKU: Bury Lady Charlotte AB0610222 $495.00
Diary Illustrative of the Times of George The Fourth Comprising the Secret History of the Court During the Reigns of George III and George IV. Interspersed With Original Letters From the Late Queen Caroline The Princess Charlotte and from Various Other Distinguished Persons by Lady Charlotte Bury One of the Maids of Honor to Queen Caroline in four volumes published by Henry Colburn London in 1839. Engraved frontispiece portrait of the Princess of Wales later Queen Caroline. Volume I is inscribed by the author Your sincere and affectionate L.C.on the frontispiece in period ink and hand. Pencil notation on title page under author: the beauty (sic) of the Argyle Family Volume I printed by Schulze and Co. 13 Poland St. London: volume II printed by W. Wilcockson Rolls Buildings Fetter Lane London: vol. III printed by Ibotson and Palmer printers Savoy Street Strand London: and vol. IV printed by J.B. Nichols and Son Printers 25 Parliament Street London. Tan half-leather with marble boards. Six compartment spine with raised bands over-lay with gilt dot-line. Two compartments are title and vol. # within a brown leather block in gilt. Four compartments have floral bough with bloom and ornate scroll work in corners within double-rule border all in gilt. Marble pastedown and endpapers. Gilt top edge and deckled fore-edge and bottom. Vol. I 400 pages: vol. II 425 pages: vol. III 402 pages: and vol. IV 392 pages. Pages are off-white to lightly toned without any foxing spotting tear or loss. Text is complete. Minor foxing confined to the frontispiece of vol. I. Defects: vol. I detached front board .5 cm. x 2 cm. leather loss to head of spine edge-wear and worn corners 2 cm. crack at head of back hinge front endpapers and frontispiece detached otherwise binding is tight. Vol. II back board is missing rubbing to front hinge line edge-wear and shelf-wear consistent with age 2 cm. x 3.5 cm. leather loss to head of spine wear to foot of spine. Vol. III edge-wear to fore-edge of boards worn corners consistent with age shelf-wear along hinge line .5 cm. x 3.5 cm. leather loss to head of spine 1 cm. x 1.5 cm. and .8 cm. x 1 cm. chips from vol. # block minor scuffs and bumps. Vol. IV 3 cm. tear in leather at head of spine 1 cm. x 3.5 cm. surface loss at foot of spine rubbing to spine 2.5 cm. crack to head of spine at front hinge 4 cm. crack at foot of spine at front hinge wear to fore-edge of boards and worn corners 13 cm. crack to back hinge starting at head. No inscriptions or marks other than noted. No dust jacket. Volumes measure: 15.5 cm. x 23.3 cm. (Octavo). Lady Charlotte Bury (n Campbell) (January 28 1775 April 1 1861) was an English novelist who is chiefly remembered in connection with a Diary illustrative of the Times of George IV (1838 Lady Charlotte Susan Maria Campbell was the daughter and the youngest child of Field Marshal Sir John Campbell 5th Duke of Argyll and Elizabeth Campbell 1st Baroness Hamilton second daughter of John Gunning of Castle Coot in Roscommon and widow of James Hamilton 6th Duke of Hamilton. She was born at Argyll House Oxford Street London. In her youth she was remarkable for her personal beauty and the charm of her manners rendered her one of the most popular persons in society while the sweetness and excellence of her character endeared her more especially to those who knew her in the intimacy of private life. She was always distinguished by her passion for the belles-lettres and was accustomed to do the honors of Scotland to the literary celebrities of the day. It was at one of her parties that Sir Walter Scott became personally acquainted with Monk Lewis. When aged twenty-two she produced a volume of poems to which however she did not affix her name. She married 14 June 1796 Colonel John Campbell (eldest son of Walter Campbell of Schawfield by his first wife Eleanora Kerr) who at the time of his decease in Edinburgh 15 March 1809 was member of parliament for the Ayr burghs. By this marriage she had nine children of whom however only two survived her Lady A. Lennox and Mrs. William Russell. Lady Charlotte Campbell married secondly 17 March 1818 the Rev. Edward John Bury (only son of Edward Bury of Taunton): he was of University College Oxford B.A. 1811 M.A. 1817 became rector of Lichfield Hampshire in 1814 and died at Ardenample Castle Dumbartonshire May 1832 aged 42 having had issue two daughters. On Lady Charlotte becoming a widow in 1809 she was appointed lady-in-waiting in the household of the Princess of Wales afterwards Queen Caroline when it is believed that she kept a diary in which she recorded the foibles and failings of the unfortunate princess and other members of the court. After her marriage with Mr. Bury she was the author of various contributions to light literature and some of her novels were once very popular although now almost forgotten. When the Diary illustrative of the Times of George IV appeared in two volumes in 1838 it was thought to bear evidence of a familiarity with the scenes depicted which could only be attributed to Lady Charlotte. It was reviewed with much severity and attributed to her ladyship by both the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews. The volumes however sold rapidly and several editions were disposed of in a few weeks. The charge of the authorship was not at the time denied and as no one has since arisen claiming to have written the diary the public libraries now catalogue the work under Lady Charlotte's name. Volume 3 of the Diary was discovered by William Michael Rossetti to contain an n encounter with William Blake: a rare description of the poet and artist from a contemporary. She died at 91 Sloane Street Chelsea 31 March 1861. The once celebrated beauty the delight of the highest circles of London society was curiously described in her death certificate at Somerset House as ''daughter of a duke and wife of the Rev. E. J. Bury holding no benefice. George IV (George Augustus Frederick: 12 August 1762 26 June 1830) was the King of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the death of his father George III on 29 January 1820 until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession he served as Prince Regent during his father's relapse into insanity. George IV indulged an extravagant lifestyle that contributed to the fashions of the British Regency. He was a patron of new forms of leisure style and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace and Sir Jeffry Wyatville to rebuild Windsor Castle. He was largely instrumental in the foundation of the National Gallery London and King's College London. He had a poor relationship with both his father and his wife Caroline of Brunswick whom he even forbade to attend his coronation. He introduced the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate unsuccessful attempt to divorce his wife. For most of George's regency and reign Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister. A weak monarch George IV let his ministers take full charge of government affairs playing a far lesser role than his father. The principle now became established that the king accepts as prime minister the person who wins a majority in the House of Commons whether the king personally favors him or not. This was the old principle the Whigs had championed under George III but which kept them out of power. The king had to accept George Canning first as foreign minister and later as prime minister. The king had to drop his opposition to Catholic Emancipation without winning any credit for it. George's governments with little help from the king presided over victory in the Napoleonic Wars negotiated the peace settlement and attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. Intellectually the cleverest of the Hanoverian kings George IV was the least successful in politics. Wits commented in his youth he was destined to be either the most polished gentleman or the most accomplished blackguard in Europe--possibly both. His charm and culture earned him the title ''the first gentleman of Europe'' but his bad relations with his father and wife and his dissolute way of life earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending in time of war. He did not provide national leadership in time of crisis nor a role model for his people. His ministers found his behavior selfish unreliable and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favorites George was born at St James's Palace London on 12 August 1762. As the eldest son of a British sovereign he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth: he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester a few days afterwards. On 18 September of the same year he was baptized by Thomas Secker Archbishop of Canterbury. His godparents were The Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (his maternal uncle for whom The Duke of Devonshire Lord Chamberlain stood proxy) The Duke of Cumberland (his twice-paternal great-uncle) and The Dowager Princess of Wales (his paternal grandmother). George was a talented student quickly learning to speak French German and Italian in addition to his native English. At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment and in dramatic contrast with his prosaic scandal-free father threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades. He was a witty conversationalist drunk or sober and showed good but expensive taste in decorating his palace. The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 1783 and obtained a grant of 0000 (equal to 5744000 today) from Parliament and an annual income of 50000 (equal to 4786000 today) from his father. It was far too little for his needs. (The stables alone cost 31000 a year.) He then established his residence in Carlton House where he lived a profligate life. Animosity developed between the prince and his father a monarch who desired more frugal behavior on the part of the heir-apparent. The King a political conservative was also alienated by the Prince of Wales's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically inclined politicians. Soon after he reached the age of 21 the Prince of Wales fell in love with a Roman Catholic Maria Anne Fitzherbert who was a widow twice over: her first husband Edward Weld died in 1775 and her second husband Thomas Fitzherbert in 1781. The Act of Settlement 1701 declared those who married Roman Catholics ineligible to succeed to the Throne and a marriage between the two was prohibited by the Royal Marriages Act 1772 under which the Prince of Wales could not marry without the consent of the King which would never have been granted. Nevertheless the couple contracted a marriage on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street Mayfair. Legally the union was void as the King's assent was never requested. However Mrs. Fitzherbert believed that she was the Prince of Wales's canonical and true wife holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons the union remained secret and Mrs. Fitzherbert promised not to publish any evidence relating to it. The Prince of Wales was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Mrs. Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787 the Prince of Wales's allies in the House of Commons introduced a proposal to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant. The prince's personal relationship with Mrs. Fitzherbert was suspected but revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalized the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny. Mrs. Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince. He appeased her by asking another Whig Richard Brinsley Sheridan to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament meanwhile was sufficiently pleased to grant the Prince of Wales 161000 (equal to 16775000 today) for the payment of his debts and 60000 (equal to 6252000 today) for improvements to Carlton House. It is now conjectured that King George III suffered from the hereditary disease porphyria. In the summer of 1788 his mental health deteriorated but he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation George III became deranged posing a threat to his own life and when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver the customary Speech from the Throne during the State Opening of Parliament. Parliament found itself in an untenable position: according to long-established law it could not proceed to any business until the delivery of the King's Speech at a State Opening. Although arguably barred from doing so Parliament began debating Regency. In the House of Commons Charles James Fox declared his opinion that the Prince of Wales was automatically entitled to exercise sovereignty during the King's incapacity. A contrasting opinion was held by the Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger who argued that in the absence of a statute to the contrary the right to choose a Regent belonged to Parliament alone. He even stated that without parliamentary authority ''the Prince of Wales had no more right...to assume the government than any other individual subject of the country.Though disagreeing on the principle underlying Regency Pitt agreed with Fox that the Prince of Wales would be the most convenient choice for a Regent. The Prince of Waleshough offended by Pitt's boldnessid not lend his full support to Fox's approach. The prince's brother Prince Frederick Duke of York declared that the prince would not attempt to exercise any power without previously obtaining the consent of Parliament. Following the passage of preliminary resolutions Pitt outlined a formal plan for the Regency suggesting that the powers of the Prince of Wales be greatly limited. Among other things the Prince of Wales would not be able either to sell the King's property or to grant a peerage to anyone other than a child of the King. The Prince of Wales denounced Pitt's scheme declaring it a ''project for producing weakness disorder and insecurity in every branch of the administration of affairs.'' In the interests of the nation both factions agreed to compromise. A significant technical impediment to any Regency Bill involved the lack of a Speech from the Throne which was necessary before Parliament could proceed to any debates or votes. The Speech was normally delivered by the King but could also be delivered by royal representatives known as Lords Commissioners: but no document could empower the Lords Commissioners to act unless the Great Seal of the Realm was affixed to it. The Seal could not be legally affixed without the prior authorization of the Sovereign. Pitt and his fellow ministers ignored the last requirement and instructed the Lord Chancellor to affix the Great Seal without the King's consent as the act of affixing the Great Seal in itself gave legal force to the Bill. This legal fiction was denounced by Edmund Burke as a ''glaring falsehood'' as a ''palpable absurdity'' and even as a ''forgery fraud''. The Prince of Wales's brother the Duke of York described the plan as ''unconstitutional and illegal.'' Nevertheless others in Parliament felt that such a scheme was necessary to preserve an effective government. Consequently on 3 February 1789 more than two months after it had convened Parliament was formally opened by an ''illegal'' group of Lords Commissioners. The Regency Bill was introduced but before it could be passed the King recovered. The King declared retroactively that the instrument authorizing the Lords Commissioners to act was valid. The Prince of Wales's debts continued to climb and his father refused to aid him unless he married his cousin Caroline of Brunswick. In 1795 the Prince of Wales acquiesced and they were married on 8 April 1795 at the Chapel Royal St James's Palace. The marriage however was disastrous: each party was unsuited to the other. The two were formally separated after the birth of their only child Princess Charlotte in 1796 and remained separated for the rest of their lives. The Prince of Wales remained attached to Mrs. Fitzherbert for the rest of his life despite several periods of estrangement. Before meeting Mrs. Fitzherbert the Prince of Wales may have fathered several illegitimate children. His mistresses included Mary Robinson an actress who was bought off with a generous pension when she threatened to sell his letters to the newspapers: Grace Elliott the divorced wife of a physician: and Frances Villiers Countess of Jersey who dominated his life for some years. In later life his mistresses were Isabella Seymour-Conway Marchioness of Hertford and finally for the last ten years of his life Elizabeth Conyngham Marchioness Conyngham. The problem of the Prince of Wales's debts which amounted to the extraordinary sum of 630000 (equal to 49820000 today) in 1795 was solved (at least temporarily) by Parliament. Being unwilling to make an outright grant to relieve these debts it provided him an additional sum of 65000 (equal to 5140000 today) per annum. In 1803 a further 60000 (equal to 4486000 today) was added and the Prince of Wales's debts of 1795 were finally cleared in 1806 although the debts he had incurred since 1795 remained. In 1804 a dispute arose over the custody of Princess Charlotte which led to her being placed in the care of the King George III. It also led to a Parliamentary Commission of Enquiry into Princess Caroline's conduct after the Prince of Wales accused her of having an illegitimate son. The investigation cleared Caroline of the charge but still revealed her behavior to be extraordinarily indiscreet. In late 1810 George III was once again overcome by his malady following the death of his youngest daughter Princess Amelia. Parliament agreed to follow the precedent of 1788: without the King's consent the Lord Chancellor affixed the Great Seal of the Realm to letters patent naming Lords Commissioners. The Lords Commissioners in the name of the King signified the granting of the Royal Assent to a bill that became the Regency Act 1811. Parliament restricted some of the powers of the Prince Regent (as the Prince of Wales became known). The constraints expired one year after the passage of the Act. As the Prince of Wales became Prince Regent on 5 January one of the most important political conflicts facing the country concerned Catholic emancipation the movement to relieve Roman Catholics of various political disabilities. The Tories led by the Prime Minister Spencer Perceval were opposed to Catholic emancipation while the Whigs supported it. At the beginning of the Regency the Prince of Wales was expected to support the Whig leader William Wyndham Grenville 1st Baron Grenville. He did not however immediately put Lord Grenville and the Whigs in office. Influenced by his mother he claimed that a sudden dismissal of the Tory government would exact too great a toll on the health of the King (a steadfast supporter of the Tories) thereby eliminating any chance of a recovery. In 1812 when it appeared highly unlikely that the King would recover the Prince of Wales again failed to appoint a new Whig administration. Instead he asked the Whigs to join the existing ministry under Spencer Perceval. The Whigs however refused to co-operate because of disagreements over Catholic emancipation. Grudgingly the Prince of Wales allowed Perceval to continue as Prime Minister. On 10 May 1812 Spencer Perceval was assassinated by John Bellingham. The Prince Regent was prepared to reappoint all the members of the Perceval ministry under a new leader. The House of Commons formally declared its desire for a ''strong and efficient administration'' so the Prince Regent then offered leadership of the government to Richard Wellesley 1st Marquess Wellesley and afterwards to Francis Rawdon-Hastings 2nd Earl of Moira. He doomed the attempts of both to failure however by forcing each to construct a bipartisan ministry at a time when neither party wished to share power with the other. Possibly using the failure of the two peers as a pretext the Prince Regent immediately reappointed the Perceval administration with Robert Banks Jenkinson 2nd Earl of Liverpool as Prime Minister. The Tories unlike Whigs such as Earl Grey sought to continue the vigorous prosecution of the war in Continental Europe against the powerful and aggressive Emperor of the French Napoleon I. An anti-French alliance which included Russia Prussia Austria Britain and several smaller countries defeated Napoleon in 1814. In the subsequent Congress of Vienna it was decided that the Electorate of Hanover a state that had shared a monarch with Britain since 1714 would be raised to a Kingdom known as the Kingdom of Hanover. Napoleon returned from exile in 1815 but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington brother of Marquess Wellesley. That same year the British-American War of 1812 came to an end with neither side victorious. During this period George took an active interest in matters of style and taste and his associates such as the dandy Beau Brummell and the architect John Nash created the Regency style. In London Nash designed the Regency terraces of Regent's Park and Regent Street. George took up the new idea of the seaside spa and had the Brighton Pavilion developed as a fantastical seaside palace adapted by Nash in the ''Indian Gothic'' style inspired loosely by the Taj Mahal with extravagant ''Indian'' and ''Chinese'' interiors. When George III died in 1820 the Prince Regent ascended the throne as George IV with no real change in his powers. By the time of his accession he was obese and possibly addicted to laudanum. George IV's relationship with his wife Caroline had deteriorated by the time of his accession. They had lived separately since 1796 and both were having affairs. In 1814 Caroline left the United Kingdom for Europe but she chose to return for her husband's coronation and to publicly assert her rights as Queen Consort. However George IV refused to recognize Caroline as Queen and commanded British ambassadors to ensure that monarchs in foreign courts did the same. By royal command Caroline's name was omitted from the Book of Common Prayer the liturgy of the Church of England. The King sought a divorce but his advisors suggested that any divorce proceedings might involve the publication of details relating to the King's own adulterous relationships. Therefore he requested and ensured the introduction of the Pains and Penalties Bill 1820 under which Parliament could have imposed legal penalties without a trial in a court of law. The bill would have annulled the marriage and stripped Caroline of the title of Queen. The bill proved extremely unpopular with the public and was withdrawn from Parliament. George IV decided nonetheless to exclude his wife from his coronation at Westminster Abbey on 19 July 1821. Caroline fell ill that day and died on 7 August: during her final illness she often stated that she thought she had been poisoned. George's coronation was a magnificent and expensive affair costing about 243000 (18994000 as of 2010) (for comparison his father's coronation had only cost about 10000 equal to 1457000 today). Despite the enormous cost it was a popular event. In 1821 the King became the first monarch to pay a state visit to Ireland since Richard II of England. The following year he visited Edinburgh for ''one and twenty daft days.'' His visit to Scotland organized by Sir Walter Scott was the first by a reigning British monarch since the mid-seventeenth century. George IV spent most of his later reign in seclusion at Windsor Castle but he continued to intervene in politics. At first it was believed that he would support Catholic Emancipation as he had proposed a Catholic Emancipation Bill for Ireland in 1797 but his anti-Catholic views became clear in 1813 when he privately canvassed against the ultimately defeated Catholic Relief Bill of 1813. By 1824 he was denouncing Catholic emancipation in public. Having taken the coronation oath on his accession George now argued that he had sworn to uphold the Protestant faith and could not support any pro-Catholic measures. The influence of the Crown was so great and the will of the Tories under Prime Minister Lord Liverpool so strong that Catholic emancipation seemed hopeless. In 1827 however Lord Liverpool retired to be replaced by the pro-emancipation Tory George Canning. When Canning entered office the King hitherto content with privately instructing his ministers on the Catholic Question thought it fit to make a public declaration to the effect that his sentiments on the question were those of his revered father George III. Canning's views on the Catholic Question were not well received by the most conservative Tories including the Duke of Wellington. As a result the ministry was forced to include Whigs. Canning died later in that year leaving Frederick John Robinson 1st Viscount Goderich to lead the tenuous Tory-Whig coalition. Lord Goderich left office in 1828 to be succeeded by the Duke of Wellington who had by that time accepted that the denial of some measure of relief to Roman Catholics was politically untenable. With great difficulty Wellington obtained the King's consent to the introduction of a Catholic Relief Bill on 29 January 1829. Under pressure from his fanatically anti-Catholic brother the Duke of Cumberland the King withdrew his approval and in protest the Cabinet resigned en masse on 4 March. The next day the King now under intense political pressure reluctantly agreed to the Bill and the ministry remained in power. Royal Assent was finally granted to the Catholic Relief Act on 13 April. George IV's heavy drinking and indulgent lifestyle had taken its toll on his health by the late 1820s. His taste for huge banquets and copious amounts of alcohol caused him to become obese making him the target of ridicule on the rare occasions that he did appear in public. Furthermore he suffered from gout arteriosclerosis cataracts and possible porphyria: he would spend whole days in bed and suffered spasms of breathlessness that would leave him half-asphyxiated. Some accounts claim that he showed signs of mental instability towards the end of his life although less extreme than his father: he sometimes claimed that he had been at the Battle of Waterloo which may have been a sign of dementia or he may have just been trying to annoy the Duke of Wellington. He died at about half-past three in the morning of 26 June 1830 at Windsor Castle: he called out ''Good God what is this?'' clasped his page's hand and said ''my boy this is death.'' He was buried in St George's Chapel Windsor on 15 July. His only legitimate child Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales had died from post-partum complications in 1817 after delivering a stillborn son. The second son of George III Prince Frederick Duke of York and Albany had died in 1827. He was therefore succeeded by another brother the third son of George III Prince William Duke of Clarence who reigned as William IV. His last years were marked by increasing physical and mental decay and withdrawal from public affairs. Privately a senior aide to the king confided to his diary: ''A more contemptible cowardly selfish unfeeling dog does not exist....There have been good and wise kings but not many of them...and this I believe to be one of the worst.'' On George's death The Times captured elite opinion succinctly: There never was an individual less regretted by his fellow-creatures than this deceased king. What eye has wept for him? What heart has heaved one throb of unmercenary sorrow? ... If he ever had a friend devoted friend in any rank of lifee protest that the name of him or her never reached us. During the political crisis caused by Catholic emancipation the Duke of Wellington said that George was ''the worst man he ever fell in with his whole life the most selfish the most false the most ill-natured the most entirely without one redeeming quality'' but his eulogy delivered in the House of Lords called George ''the most accomplished man of his age'' and praised his knowledge and talent. Wellington's true feelings probably lie somewhere between these two extremes: as he said later George was ''a magnificent patron of the arts ... the most extraordinary compound of talent wit buffoonery obstinacy and good feelingn short a medley of the most opposite qualities with a great preponderance of goodhat I ever saw in any character in my life.'' George IV was described as the ''First Gentleman of England'' on account of his style and manners. Certainly he possessed many good qualities: he was bright clever and knowledgeable. However his laziness and gluttony led him to squander much of his talent. As The Times once wrote he would always prefer ''a girl and a bottle to politics and a sermon.'' There are many statues of George IV a large number of which were erected during his reign. In the United Kingdom they include a bronze statue of him on horseback by Sir Francis Chantrey in Trafalgar Square and another outside the Royal Pavilion in Brighton. In Edinburgh George IV Bridge is a main street linking the Old Town High Street to the south over the ravine of the Cowgate designed by the architect Thomas Hamilton in 1829 and completed in 1835. King's Cross now a major transport hub sitting on the border of Camden and Islington in north London takes its name from a short-lived monument erected to George IV in the early 1830s. The Regency period saw a shift in fashion that was largely determined by George. After political opponents put a tax on wig powder he abandoned wearing a powdered wig in favor of natural hair. He wore darker colors than had been previously fashionable as they helped to disguise his size favored pantaloons and trousers over knee breeches because they were looser and popularized a high collar with neck cloth because it hid his double chin. By 1797 his weight had reached 17 stone 7 pounds (111 kg or 245 lb) and by 1824 his corset was made for a waist of 50 inches (127 cm). His visit to Scotland in 1822 led to the revival if not the creation of Scottish tartan dress as it is known today.