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Bourrienne Louis Antoine Fauvelet de; Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte

SKU: Bourrienne Louis Antoine Fauve $90.00
Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte by Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne his private secretary. To which are added an account of the important events of the hundred days of Napoleon trades surrender to the English and his residence and death at St. Helena with anecdotes and illustrative extracts from all the most authentic sources. Edited by R.W. Phipps Colonel late Royal Artillery. New Revised Edition with numerous engraved illustrations in four volumes. Published by Charles Scribner trades Sons New York in 1891. Volume I engraved frontispiece of Napoleon I first portrait. Volume II engraved frontispiece of Empress Josephine second portrait. Volume III engraved frontispiece of Napoleon second portrait. Volume IV engraved frontispiece of Empress Marie Louise second portrait. Navy blue cloth boards with facsimile of Napoleonic Imperial Seal in gilt on front. Title author and vol. # on pastedown block with single rule border in gilt on spine in addition to pub. at foot. Shelf-wear edge-wear grime scuffs and bumps are LESS than consistent with age and gentle use. Vol. I 422 pages: vol. II 440 pages with two fold-out charts A Concordance of the Republican and the Gregorian Calendars [minor fold creases chip loss and 1 cm. fore-edge tear]: vol. III 459 pages with a fold-out three color map to illustrate the Dominion of Napoleon I [4.5 cm. tear vertically at foot of first fold]: vol. IV 444 pages. Cream to lightly toned supple pages without foxing spotting tear or loss. Beginning foxing confined to the pastedown and endpaper of vol. III only. Text is complete. No marks or inscriptions. Binding is tight. No dust jacket. Volumes measure: 13.5 cm. x 19.2 cm. (12mo.). A very nice set with minimal wear. Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napolon Bonaparte French pronunciation: [napole ''I b ''n 'paEt] Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte: 15 August 1769 5 May 1821) was a military and political leader of France and Emperor of the French as Napoleon I whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century. Napoleon was born in Corsica to parents of noble Italian ancestry and trained as an artillery officer in mainland France. Bonaparte rose to prominence under the First French Republic and led successful campaigns against the First and Second Coalitions arrayed against France. In 1799 he staged a coup d'tat and installed himself as First Consul: five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor. In the first decade of the nineteenth century the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts''the Napoleonic Wars''involving every major European power. After a streak of victories France secured a dominant position in continental Europe and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states. The French invasion of Russia in 1812 marked a turning point in Napoleon's fortunes. His Grande Arm was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered. In 1813 the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig: the following year the Coalition invaded France forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island of Elba. Less than a year later he escaped Elba and returned to power but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. Napoleon spent the last six years of his life in confinement by the British on the island of Saint Helena. An autopsy concluded he died of stomach cancer though Sten Forshufvud and other scientists have since conjectured that he was poisoned with arsenic. Napoleon's campaigns are studied at military academies the world over. While considered a tyrant by his opponents he is also remembered for the establishment of the Napoleonic code which laid the administrative and judicial foundations for much of Western Europe. In the field of military organization Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte Comte de Guibert and from the reforms of preceding French governments and then developed much of what was already in place. He continued the policy which emerged from the Revolution of promotion based primarily on merit. Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine. These methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare. Though he consolidated the practice of modern conscription introduced by the Directory one of the restored monarchy's first acts was to end it. Weapons and other kinds of military technology remained largely static through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras but 18th century operational mobility underwent significant change. Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. Napoleon was regarded by the influential military theorist Carl von Clausewitz as a genius in the operational art of war and historians rank him as a great military commander. Wellington when asked who was the greatest general of the day answered: ''In this age in past ages in any age Napoleon.'' Napoleon suffered various military setbacks however: at Leipzig in 1813 in Russia in 1812 and arguably at Aspern-Essling in 1809. He also had to abandon his forces in Egypt - the result of strategic defeat rather than any reverse in pitched battle. Not once with the exception of two small-scale battles in Italy was Napoleon defeated in a field battle without being heavily outnumbered. However Napoleon can be said to have had a vice: his success contained the seeds of its own failure because Napoleon would keep conquering until rendered unable to do so by defeat. Under Napoleon a new emphasis towards the destruction not just out maneuvering of enemy armies emerged. Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. The political impact of war increased significantly: defeat for a European power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves. Near-Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war. The official introduction of the metric system in September 1799 was unpopular in large sections of French society and Napoleon's rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard across not only France but also the French sphere of influence. Napoleon ultimately took a retrograde step in 1812 as he passed legislation to return France to its traditional units of measurement but these were decimalized and the foundations were laid for the definitive introduction of the metric system across Europe in the middle of the 19th century. Napoleon emancipated Jews from laws which restricted them to ghettos and he expanded their rights to property worship and careers. Despite the anti-semitic reaction to Napoleon's policies from foreign governments and within France he believed emancipation would benefit France by attracting Jews to the country given the restrictions they faced elsewhere. He stated: ''I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country. It takes weakness to chase them out of the country but it takes strength to assimilate them.'' He was seen as so favorable to the Jews that the Russian Orthodox Church formally condemned him as ''Antichrist and the Enemy of God''. The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Europe though only in the lands he conquered and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat. Napoleon said: ''My true glory is not to have won 40 battles...Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. ... But...what will live forever is my Civil Code.'' The Code still has importance today in a quarter of the world's jurisdictions including in Europe the Americas and Africa. Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a ''revolutionary project'' which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism. Napoleon reorganized what had been the Holy Roman Empire made up of more than a thousand entities into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine: this provided the basis for the German Confederation and the unification of Germany in 1871. The movement toward national unification in Italy was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule. These changes contributed to the development of nationalism and the Nation state. In French political history Bonapartism has two meanings. The term can refer to people who restored the French Empire under the House of Bonaparte including Napoleon's Corsican family and his nephew Louis. Napoleon left a Bonapartist dynasty which ruled France again: Louis became Napoleon III of France Emperor of the Second French Empire and was the first President of France. In a wider sense Bonapartism refers to a broad centrist or center-right political movement that advocates the idea of a strong and centralized state based on popular support. Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France. He was however considered a tyrant and usurper by his opponents. His critics charge that he was not significantly troubled when faced with the prospect of war and death for thousands turned his search for undisputed rule into a series of conflicts throughout Europe and ignored treaties and conventions alike. His role in the Haitian Revolution and decision to reinstate slavery in France's oversea colonies are controversial to his reputation. Napoleon institutionalized plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe. Artefacts were brought to the Louvre for a grand central museum: his example would later serve as inspiration for more notorious imitators. He was compared to Adolf Hitler most famously by the historian Pieter Geyl in 1947. David G. Chandler historian of Napoleonic warfare wrote ''Nothing could be more degrading to the former and more flattering to the latter.'' Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes ''After all the military record is unquestioned''17 years of wars perhaps six million Europeans dead France bankrupt her overseas colonies lost.'' McLynn notes that ''He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars. However Vincent Cronin replies that such criticism relies on the flawed premise that Napoleon was responsible for the wars which bear his name when in fact France was the victim of a series of coalitions which aimed to destroy the ideals of the Revolution. Some occultists consider Napoleon one of the antichrists prophesized by Nostradamus. International Napoleonic Congresses are held regularly and include participation by members of the French and American military French politicians and scholars from different countries.